Accepted Abstracts - Earth USA 2017


The following abstracts have been accepted for presentation at Earth USA 2017. A preliminary schedule of podium and poster presentations will be made available in September. Please note: All abstracts are listed alphabetically by country in the order they were received.


Algeria


Author:
Dahbia Abbou
Institutional Affiliation: Abd El Hamid Ibn Badis University - Mostaganem
Title: VERNACULAR EARTHEN ARCHITECTURE IN ALGERIA. FROM KSOUR TO KABYLIAN RURAL VILLAGES.
Abstract Synopsis: If more than a third of the inhabitants of our planet live in an earthen house, i.e more than two billion people in 150 countries, Algeria is not an exception with its intensive architectural heritage from north to south. The best-known earthen architectural remains in Algeria, are the hundreds of historical centers of southern oases which are built completely or partially with earth, a local material used by excellence. Usually the walls are made of adobe and roofs with the trunks of palm trees and reeds.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status:
Not attending. Abstract withdrawn.

Author: Dahbia Abbou
Institutional Affiliation: Abd El Hamid Ibn Badis University - Mostaganem
Title: THE PERCEPTION OF EARTHEN BUILDINGS IN KABYLIA: MAATKAS
Abstract Synopsis: In this research, we studied the old earth buildings made by the inhabitants of the region of Mâatkas, which are a set of constructions using local materials such as mud used with rammed earth technique. This research is an opportunity to approach this rural heritage that has been little studied. The aim of our work is to see the state of these buildings, and to understand the nature of psychological resistance to the material, and to the earthen constructions, by collecting global appreciation of owners of their earth houses.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: Not attending. Abstract withdrawn.

Columbia


Author: Carlos Alberto Diaz Riveros
Institutional Affiliation: Corporación Universitaria del Meta
Title: LA REDUCCIÓN ENERGÉTICA: MECANISMO DE EFICIENCIA Y SOSTENIBILIDAD EN LA ARQUITECTURA RELIGIOSA DE LOS LLANOS DEL META
Abstract Synopsis: Hasta hace muy poco se ha abordado el estudio de la bioclimática y energética en la Arquitectura religiosa de los Llanos del Meta, vista como una geograİa sin adelantos: cienơficos, tecnológicos, ni constructivos, esto debido a la candidez de los actuales pobladores, frente a al principio del microclima presente en esta arquitectura, las huellas construidas por el hombre, se profundizo en el estudio de la fábrica de esta arquitectura religiosa, develando el grado jerárquico que tenía el confort térmico para los edificadores al momento de construir los templos. Se busca la conservación de estos inmuebles con valor cultural, permitiendo que perduren en el tiempo, del mismo modo, que puedan manifestar y ostentar su legado a futuras generaciones.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: TBD

Authors: Carlos Alberto Diaz Riveros, Tatiana Alejandra Villalobos Carrillo y Juan Carlos Alferez Gomez
Institutional Affiliation: Corporación Universitaria del Meta
Title: EL PATRIMONIO CULTURAL ARQUITECTÓNICO VERNÁCULO BAJO LA NORMA NTS – TS 002
Abstract Synopsis: Buscar la conservación de los inmuebles con valor cultural, a través del cumplimiento de nuevas normas en nuestro país, como lo es la NTS – TS 002 por el Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo, trata los temas referentes al turismo sostenible dentro del cual se encuadra en la conservación se ha integrado por representantes de la industria turística y hotelera, delegados del Gobierno, la academia y usuarios. Se planteó en el capítulo cinco los requisitos socioculturales en el cual se incluyeron: Conservación y uso sostenible del patrimonio cultural, Manejo y prevención de riesgos sociales, y Apoyo a las comunidades; en el primer punto de estos tres se delimito: En caso de que esté ubicado en un BIC, cumplir con la legislación vigente aplicable relacionada con su conservación; en estos dos casos se vislumbra la importancia de los nuevos abordajes que se deben tomar en cuenta a estas edificaciones en su funcionamiento ya que son utilizadas como base para la prestación de servicios y abre nueva puertas a las actividades patrimoniales como la gestión de los paisajes culturales, a entender el patrimonio como producto y desde luego, el patrimonio con marca registrada, permitiendo que los diferentes realizadores de las manifestaciones culturales que involucra el espacio urbano y en este caso puntualmente las edificaciones con valor patrimonial, inclusive los bienes de Interés Cultural BIC. Se presentara dos casos de estudio, edificaciones vernáculas construidas en tierra, empleadas como hospedaje, habitación y turística.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: TBD

France


Authors: Alessia Cuccurullo, Domenico Gallipoli, Agostino Walter Bruno, Charles Augarde, Paul Hughes, Claire Lawrence, Christian La Borderie
Institutional Affiliation: Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour
Title: THE INFLUENCE OF THE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON THE HYGRO-THERMO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HYPER-COMPACTED RAW EARTH
Abstract Synopsis: The present paper investigates the hygro-mechanical behaviour and the durability properties of three earth mixes with different particle size distributions. Stiffness and strength were measured by performing unconfined compression tests while the capacity of the material to adsorb/release heat was assessed by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The vapour adsorption/desorption behaviour of the material was assessed by measuring its moisture buffering value (MBV) and finally, durability against water erosion was investigated by performing immersion tests.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: TBD

Authors: Thomas Granier, Amarys Preuss
Institutional Affiliation: The Nubian Vault Association
Title: BETTER BUILDING IN WEST AFRICA: REHABILITATING EARTH ARCHI-CULTURE FOR GREEN DEVELOPMENT
Abstract Synopsis: Thomas Granier, a French mason, and Séri Youlou, a Burkinabe farmer, have launched together an innovative social entrepreneurship programme dedicated to providing suitable, sustainable and affordable housing for the populations of the Sahel. Together, they have revived, simplified and standardized the Nubian Vault (NV) technique, a low-tech, low-carbon, low-cost construction method using only adobe bricks and earth mortar.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: TBD

Author: Luc Pecquet
Title: SOCIAL MODELS, ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICES, AND VICE-VERSA: MAINTAINING AND PERPETUATING THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN LYELA COUNTRY (BURKINA FASO)
Abstract Synopsis: To understand the social and cultural practices associated with the Lyela architectural style considered here, we will examine two spatial “units”. The first, the smaller of the two, is the home. In Lyela country, each home is the domain of one married woman, who has overall responsibility for it. The second and larger unit considered here (which is a dispersed living environment) is the “household”, in the anthropological sense of the term. This unit groups together several homes. The “household” (or compound) is the residence of a patrilineal group, which is headed by the eldest man in the family group, a descendant of the man who founded the “household”. For technical reasons, due to the construction methods used, the home requires regular maintenance.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: Not attending. Abstract withdrawn.

Germany


Authors: Horst Schroeder, Manfred Lemke
Institutional Affiliation: Dachverband Lehm e.V.
Title: SUSTAINABILITY OF EARTH BUILDING MATERIALS –ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCT DECLARATIONS AS AN INSTRUMENT OF COMPETITION IN BUILDING MATERIAL INDUSTRY
Abstract Synopsis: Earth building materials are inherently environmentally friendly because they do not pose any health risks and have a low PEI and environmental impact compared to other building materials. Producers of other mineral energy-intensive building materials have provided certified EPDs for building materials containing lime, gypsum and cement based on requirements by their respective industry organizations. Until now, EPDs for earth building products do not exist. This paper will give current information about a project for developing EPDs for earth mortars and earth blocks started by the German Dachverband Lehm e. V. (DVL).
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Iran


Author: Elaheh Azarnoush
Title: DESIGN NEIGHBORHOOD CENTER AND HOUSES IN SHAFEE ABAD VILLAGE BASED ON VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE IN DESERT
Abstract Synopsis: The villages around Shahdad, in Lut desert off the beaten path, as old as the hills, truly untouched, are among the very few unique places that can be a proper place for eco-tourism and also scientific studies. A lot of visitors and researchers go there every year, in order to visit or study this dry and unknown piece of land. Although these villages have followed a self-sufficient indigenous art and architecture, developing a pioneer and practical research center with regard to vernacular. These centers can both propose and design neighborhood center belongs to Iranian Architecture which can ultimately lead to economic and cultural elevation of the indigenous people.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: Not attending. Poster will be on display.

Authors: Mostafa Arefhaghi and Samane Barjasteh Delforooz and René M. Du Terroil
Title: ADOBE INTROVERTED ARCHITECTURE; ADOBE ARCHITECTURE, IRAN ZOROASTRIAN PEOPLE: CASE STUDY IS ELAHABAD VILLAGE.
Abstract Synopsis: Iran is one of the countries that has many experience in adobe architecture technique from thousands of years ago. During these years, the Zoroastrians in Iran have always maintained, adobe architecture models and patterns in place their own lives in terms of design, decorate and building. After the Muslim conquest of Iran in 1430 years ago, the presence and activities for the development, transfer and growth of Zoroastrians in Iran, was limited. This limitation in the growth and development in urban and rural construction, changes in forms and common patterns in Iranian architecture, change the values of faith and belief, restrictions on religious buildings, religious and educational displaying and activity of Zoroastrians.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: TBD

Jordan


Authors: Umaima Al Aqtash, Paola Bandini, and Sonya Cooper
Institutional Affiliation: Hashemite University
Title: EFFECT OF MOISTURE ON THE OUT-OF-PLANE LATERAL STRENGTH OF RESIDENTIAL ADOBE MASONRY WALLS
Abstract Synopsis: Throughout the southwestern United States, many landmarks of historic significance as well as contemporary residential buildings are constructed with adobe. Moisture damage in adobe walls has been reported often in historical and modern construction. The greatest water contents are often at or near the base of the walls caused by capillary rise from ground moisture or poor runoff water drainage. This paper evaluates the effects of moisture within the walls of adobe buildings on their ability to resist out-of-plane loads, such as the outward thrust caused by the roof loads and non-centric wall alignment.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: TBD

Kuwait


Author: Ilhan Shamseddin Khalil
Title: EARTHEN CONSTRUCTION AS NEW ARCHITECTURAL LIFE STYLE RAGBAH TOWN – K.S.A.
Abstract Synopsis: The Earthen City of Raghbah in Saudi Arabia is a perfect, surviving example of historical city in the Arabian desert. Presently, it is uninhabited and almost all of its buildings need restoration, re-purposing, and preservation. Raghbah can become a model for the entire desert region of Najd (northern part of Saudi Arabia) to demonstrate that Earthen Architecture is a feasible, affordable, durable, cost-effective, environment-friendly construction method in our times.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: TBD

Mali


Author: Ali Ould Sidi
Institutional Affiliation: Mali Ministry of Culture
Title: RECONSTRUCTION OF TIMBUKTU EARTHEN HERITAGE
Abstract Synopsis: Following the destruction of Timbuktu mosques and mausoleums by terrorists in 2012 a huge reconstruction program was settled in February 2013 by UNESCO and an action plan putting together local community, experts and site mangers in order to rehabilitate or to rebuild heritage damaged during three years.
Presentation Type: TBD
Attendance Status: TBD

Mexico


Author: Juan M Casillas Pintor
Institutional Affiliation: Universidad Iberoamericana cdmx
Title: REGENERATIVE IMPACT PROJECTS, -THE POWER OF ARCHITECTURE AS A GAME CHANGING TOOL-
Abstract Synopsis: The evidence is clear, the development of the culture is unsustainable, the irreversible damage to the environment is getting closer, the building industry generates a high percentage of CO2 emissions that affects the atmosphere and the climate system on which our livelihood depends. the responsibility of the architect is to make architecture a tool for socio-environmental change, through the design and construction of projects with high regenerative impact on the environment and society.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Nigeria


Author: Anthony Maduabum
Institutional Affiliation: Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University
Title: EVALUATION OF THERMAL COMFORT CONDITIONS IN CLASSROOMS BUILT WITH COMPRESSED EARTH BLOCKS IN COMPARISON WITH CONTEMPORARY SANDCRETE BLOCKS IN ANAMBRA STATE OF NIGERIA (Work in Progress)
Abstract Synopsis: Pre-colonial and post-independence buildings in most parts of Nigeria were made of earth as the walling material. Gradually ‘Sandcrete’ blocks (machine pressed mixture of sand and cement) replaced both our traditional earthen walls and the European Burnt bricks. However, the worsening Energy Crisis in Nigeria has forced professionals in the Built Environment to look for sustainable strategies to cut the energy demand in buildings. Classrooms built with Compressed Earth Blocks (CEB) are compared with Classrooms built with Sandcrete Blocks in the same school, to find out if there is a difference in the use of energy by the different materials. This exercise is carried out in 6 different locations in the state. 60 questionnaires were distributed –30 for each building type. Analyses of the results will be followed up by oral interviews.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: TBD

Authors: Ben Iwuagwu and Ikechukwu Onyegiri
Institutional Affiliation: Department of Architecture, Abia State Polytechnic, Aba
Title: DEVELOPING A MODEL FOR IMPROVING HOUSING CONDITIONS IN URBAN SLUMS IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF FIVE SELECTED SLUM NEIGHBOURHOODS IN UMUAHIA
Abstract Synopsis: This research studies five selected slum neighbourhoods in Umuahia with the aim of developing a model for improving housing conditions in the urban slums in Umuahia. The objectives of the study are: to investigate the types of building structures; to identify the type of building materials used in housing construction and to determine the residents satisfaction with their housing condition in the study area identified as slum.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Authors: Ben Iwuagwu and Ikechukwu Onyegiri
Institutional Affiliation: Department of Architecture, Abia State Polytechnic, Aba
Title: REDRESSING EARTH BUILDING ADAPTATION IN NIGERIA: A POST USES EVALUATIVE STUDY OF COMPRESSED EARTH BUILDING LOW-COST HOUSING PROJECT IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA. THE AVU- OWERRI REDEMPTION HOUSING EXPERIENCE.
Abstract Synopsis: Low-cost housing projects are a fundamental part of developing sustainable homes for the population in third world countries. Nigeria is the most populated country in Africa, and is experiencing problems such as a rapid population growth rate, uncontrolled urbanisation, housing deficit estimated at 17 million units, deforestation and erosion which directly affect the population’s well-being. These problems prompted the then Imo State Government in 2002 to construct eighty units of Compressed Stabilised Earth Brick (CSEB) low cost houses for the public at Avu-Owerri. By constructing this demonstration houses, the unfamiliar simple technologies used were meant to be spread to the society, showing the population the advantages they hold in cost, durability and comfort compared to the conventional ways of building they are adopting. Fifteen years after, a post use assessment shows that over one hundred and twenty conventional houses units has been built around the project within the estate.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Norway


Author: Hauke Haupts
Institutional Affiliation: Sør-Trøndelag County Authority, cultural heritage management and protection
Title: "EARTHEN CONSTRUCTIONS DO NOT INSULATE!"
Abstract Synopsis: This paper seeks to use the principles of heat transfer in nature itself to describe the thermal conditions in man-made constructions like earthen buildings. Nature has figured out excellent ways of balancing and managing the variations in temperature provided by the sun in different environments with opposite climatic profiles. Thus, this paper challenges the practice of transforming simple walls into highly technological constructions that require loads of monitoring and control to manage natural changes in temperature.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Peru


Authors: Marcial Blondet, Nicola Tarque and Julio Vargas-Neumann
Institutional Affiliation: Pontifical Catholic University of Peru
Title: EVALUATION OF A ROPE MESH REINFORCEMENT FOR EARTHEN CONSTRUCTIONS IN SEISMIC AREAS
Abstract Synopsis: Throughout the world millions of people are at unacceptable risk because they live in unreinforced earthen dwellings, which have consistently shown extremely poor structural behavior during earthquakes. This article presents preliminary results from an ongoing project undertaken at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (PUCP), whose main objective is the development of reinforcement techniques for earthen constructions located in seismic areas.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Rwanda


Authors: Chris Rollins, PE; Gayatri Datar; Rebecca Wentworth; Colin Wright; Sarah Johnson; Bruce King, PE
Institutional Affiliation: EarthEnable
Title: DEVELOPMENT OF AN EARTHEN FLOOR BUILDING CODE
Abstract Synopsis: Just as earthen wall construction is a prevailing building technique across the world, earthen floors are also common. Vernacular techniques that stabilize these floors against abrasion and moisture exist, however studies show that traditional earthen floor construction contributes to poor indoor air quality and specifically respiratory diseases in children. EarthEnable, a for-profit enterprise based in Kigali, Rwanda, has identified a market strategy to improve earthen floor techniques to reduce or eliminate health problems while maintaining costs low enough that average Rwandan families can afford the improved floor. The technique uses a hand compacted base with a wearing surface of lateritic and montmorillonite soils, similar to traditional techniques in the region. A linseed oil mixture with proprietary additives stabilizes the wearing surface against abrasion and water infiltration.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Saudi Arabia


Author: Dr. Mashary Al Naim and Dr. Hani M. Al Huneidi
Institutional Affiliation: Adviser for Built Heritage - Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage
Title: INSTITUTING EARTH ARCHITECTURE
Abstract Synopsis: Earth and traditional architecture is usually preformed as a communal practice, or based on personal interest. This paper will expose how National Built Heritage Center at the Saudi commission for tourism and national heritage managed to institute earth architecture at the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, within a legislative system, and professional practice. it will tackle legal aspects of Earth architecture, organization of practicing, encouraging investment in earth architecture and finally establishment of educational program for teaching this art.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: TBD

Spain


Authors: Camilla Mileto, Fernando Vegas López-Manzanares, Lidia García-Soriano, F.Javier Gómez Patrocinio, Laura Villacampa Crespo
Institutional Affiliation: Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain)
Title: EARTHEN VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA. FIRST PHASE OF TAXONOMY AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION
Abstract Synopsis: This study is part of the research project “SOStierra. The restoration and rehabilitation of traditional earthen architecture in the Iberian Peninsula. Guidelines and tools for sustainable intervention” funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (BIA2014-55924-R). This research focuses on earthen vernacular architecture in the Iberian Peninsula, where the many different earthen construction techniques used throughout history (rammed earth, adobe, formwork, cob and its variants) have mainly been due to the vast territory, heterogeneous geography and climate, variety of available materials, and cultural diversity.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: TBD

Author: Guillermo Vazquez Guillamet
Title: REVALUING WOODLESS VAULTS AS AN ECOLOGICAL RESOURCE: THE MEXICAN LEANING-BRICK VAULT MADE WITH CEB AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO CONVENTIONAL CONCRETE SLABS
Abstract Synopsis: This document is intended to highlight the need to revalue vaulted systems as an ecological and social resource in the industrialized northern countries. It is shown as one example of all types of vaults without formwork and how competitive the Mexican leaning-brick vault made with compressed earth block, CEB, is as an alternative to conventional concrete slabs; demonstrating that it can become cheaper, more ecological and more suggestive aesthetically, requiring more labor.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: TBD

Turkey


Author: Bilge Işik
Title: EARTH-SHOT TECHNOLOGY FOR GLOBAL ENERGY SAVINGS
Abstract Synopsis: This paper will summarize the researches on shot- earth technology carried since 2002. The material used for injection is gypsum stabilized earth (since 1978). The tasks for the researches are to minimize the construction period, to obtain durability and earthquake safety of the material.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: TBD

Author: Seyhan Yardimli
Institutional Affiliation: Istanbul Aydin University, Faculty of Architecture and Design
Title: ENZYME AND POLYMER CONTRIBUTIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS IN ADOBE MATERIALS
Abstract Synopsis: One of the weakest aspects of the adobe material is its non-resistance towards water. When water contacts with soil it can often cause mass loss by melting, which leads to a considerable decrease in strength. In this study, additives based of enzyme and polymer were used, aiming to increase water resistance in adobe structures. Furthermore samples were produced to compare the results without any additives. The specimens were left for 30 days to gain strength and afterwards water absorption and pressure tests were applied to the samples prepared. Chemical analysis has been carried out in order to understand the content of the soil used in the sample production. It can be concluded that the additives used in the tests result in adobes with higher water resistance.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

United Arab Emirates


Author: Amer Rghei Ph.D (Waterloo); M.Arch (McGill) CANADA
Institutional Affiliation: American University of Ras Al Khaimah
Title: DEFENSIVE ARCHITECTURE IN UAE DESERT
Abstract Synopsis: Traditional desert oases in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were protected from the neighboring tribes’ attack in the past, and however, all ancient oases in the UAE deserts were surrounded with adobe forts and defensive towers to provide protection and security in desert areas throughout the year. Defensive structures were built with style of indigenous architecture which were constructed mainly from locally available materials such as mud-bricks.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: TBD

United States of America


Authors: Daryl Allen, Preservation Specialist, Gil Sanchez, FAIA (E), and Cesar Medina, Architect
Title: MASTER PLAN FOR PRESERVATION OF THE MISSION SOLEDED SITE AND STRUCTURES
Abstract Synopsis: This presentation will describe the planning and restoration of one of California's twenty-one missions, Mission Nuestra Senora de la Soledad. Mission Soledad in Central California was constructed entirely of adobe. Eight years ago, the Board who manages the mission site for the Catholic Diocese, undertook the development of a Master Plan to manage the preservation of existing ruins and the reconstruction of mission portions of the historically significant site listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Author: Deniz Berdine
Title: GREEN INSULATION MATERIAL
Abstract Synopsis: HempFlax Nature Insulation is made out of 100% hemp fibres and make their insulation batts from mostly hempfibre, adding some polyester fibre for reinforcing. The fibre is produced from the non-psychoactive hemp plant which is grown with low input and Soda acts as the fire retardant.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Authors: Lisa Schroder, Jim Hallock
Title: ESTABLISHING A CEB AND ADOBE PRODUCTION YARD NEAR DENVER, COLORADO
Abstract Synopsis: The idea to set up a block yard in Colorado that offers both adobe and CEB’s is an opportunity Jim Hallock and Lisa Schroder couldn’t pass up. With the support of a significant developer and land owner in the Front Range, who also has a passion for earthen construction, the planning began to launch a production facility that would also serve as a training grounds for education and showcase center for earthen building. Despite the fact that adobe and CEB have been in quiet (and not so quiet at times) competition for superiority, this remains a moot point for our unique facility. We understand there is a place for both adobe and CEB in the construction world, and we intend to educate people to the unique properties of both.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speakers

Authors: Nitin Kumar, Michele Barbato
Institutional Affiliation: Louisiana State University
Title: COMPRESSED AND STABILIZED EARTH BLOCKS IN LOUISIANA
Abstract Synopsis: Compressed and stabilized earth block (CSEB) structural systems are becoming popular due to their low cost, low carbon footprint, use of indigenous materials, and inherent simplicity. CSEB structural systems are characterized by higher thermal insulation, better humidity control, and smaller embodied energy than fired clay masonry. Currently, CSEBs construction in the USA is prevalently used in dry and arid regions (e.g., New Mexico and west Texas). However, CSEBs construction has been rarely used in Louisiana due to: (1) poor resistance to degradation generally experienced by CSEB construction in humid and rainy climate; (2) the widespread perception of earth construction as a substandard choice for resistance to extreme wind loads; and (3) limited availability of well-graded soil suitable for fabrication of high strength CSEBs.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Authors: Jessica Kusz, Anthony Crosby
Institutional Affiliation: Friends of Santa Cruz State Parks
Title: ADOBE BUILDINGS IN CALIFORNIA: A CASE STUDY IN SEISMIC STABILIZATION OF THE CASTRO ADOBE IN SANTA CRUZ COUNTY
Abstract Synopsis: Working closely with structural engineer, Fred Webster, and non-profit, Friends of Santa Cruz State Parks, the Castro Adobe was seismically upgraded incorporating many of the strengthening design elements resulting from the Getty Conservation Institute’s adobe program in the 1990s of which Mr. Webster was a key component. This two-story adobe, the only remaining one in Santa Cruz County presented other challenges as well. This paper delves into Webster’s designs and the installation of the structural design being implemented presently.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Author: Kirk Higbee
Institutional Affiliation: Arizona State University
Title: ADOBES IN PHOENIX, ARIZONA: FROM THE SOIL THEY HOUSE
Abstract Synopsis: The City of Phoenix grew from its beginning in 1870 as an agricultural adobe village through to the twenty-first century to one of the largest and fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States. Adobe construction soon gave way to milled lumber, fired brick and concrete block. An historical survey of Adobe construction follows the growth and building booms of Adobe Construction from the beginning of the city through floods, fires, housing crisis, changing building codes, cultural perceptions and suburban flight to the present day where city growth has affected the historic and aesthetic value of Adobe construction in Phoenix today.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Authors: Erika L. Rengifo-López, Nitin Kumar, Fabio Matta, Michele Barbato
Institutional Affiliation: University of South Carolina
Title: VARIABILITY OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS OF COMPRESSED AND STABILIZED EARTH BLOCKS
Abstract Synopsis: Earth masonry made with compressed and stabilized earth blocks (CSEBs), and stabilized earth mortar, is emerging as a low-cost, sustainable and locally-appropriate material that is suitable for hazard-resistant (e.g., tornado, earthquake) houses. The fundamental understanding of the mechanical behavior of CSEBs is key to develop analytical and numerical tools to predict structural response. CSEBs are produced by compressing a mixture of soil, water, and a stabilizer, increasing the density of the mixture and enhancing the interaction between soil and stabilizer. However, this process may result in non-uniform physical and mechanical properties since the pressure directly imparted is unidirectional, and internal friction in the mixture may result in a non-uniform pressure throughout a given CSEB. Therefore, a question arises on whether CSEBs can be regarded as isotropic for the purpose of constitutive and numerical modeling.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Author: Paul Schwam
Title: COMPREHENSIVE EARTH-BUILDING PRACTICES AND A POSSIBLE FUTURE VISION
Abstract Synopsis: The world would benefit from a significantly simpler building system; one that’s: 1. Ecological and healthy; 2. High quality at do-it-yourself levels; 3. Durable for 10-generations (vs. 1/2 generation). 4. Capable of supporting civilization rather than dragging on it. The solution already exists: within Earthen construction solutions.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Authors: Pat Taylor, Eric Liefeld, Dr. David Rockstraw, and Gregg Henry
Institutional Affiliation: Pat Taylor, Inc. and Mesilla Valley Preservation, Inc.
Title: ADOBE DYNAMICS 101 - EXPANDED
Abstract Synopsis: This comprehensive paper combines several different ongoing efforts to assess and preserve our most precious resource, adobe. A thorough overall assessment followed by “preservation best practices” methodology will help property owners, contractors, and preservation specialists more clearly understand how earthen buildings function and age. The overall goal is to minimize cost and both material and building loss over time.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: TBD

Author: Alex B. Lim
Title: CONSERVING EARTHEN RUINS WITH PRESERVATION INTERNS
Abstract Synopsis: Since 2013, the author participated in workshops and the Park-based preservation internship program to teach undergraduate students from anthropology, architecture, and other diverse disciplines how to conserve earthen ruins at Tumacácori National Historical Park (TUMA). Despite significant time spent on the students, it is very difficult to retain them and to encourage them to develop their professional skills, so that the National Park Service can retain their services. The National Park Service is uniquely positioned to engage more students toward the profession in heritage conservation, and it can do more to professionally train students and to encourage them to join the National Park Service. Using the examples from TUMA, the author will share the lessons learned from his interaction with students and instructors.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: TBD

Author: Patti Stouter
Institutional Affiliation: BuildSimple.org
Title: HOW EARTH CAN RESIST EARTHQUAKES: WITH BAGS, WIRE, AND A LITTLE KNOWLEDGE
Abstract Synopsis: Civil engineers rely on geotextiles for retaining walls in seismic risk areas. Building walls can benefit from the same tensile strength and resilience. After 50 earthbag buildings survived Nepal’s 2015 earthquakes near decimated villages, trainers and builders have been busy. But Nepal’s frequent quakes are likely to be 2 to 3 times as severe. We now have proof that contained earth walls can surpass strengths required for adobe walls in New Zealand’s 1.5 g seismic risk. And proof that unreinforced earthbag of weak soils may be weaker than old mudblock.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Authors: Beverly Donoghue, Michael Donoghue
Institutional Affiliation: Earthen Construction Initiative
Title: THE LIFE OF EARTH
Abstract Synopsis: If the promise of earthen construction (EC) is to be fully realized, the technology must not only advance toward the standards of utility and reliability demanded in the wider world. A stronger case must be made for “why” EC offers a set of viable building technologies.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Authors: Michael Neumann and James Hallock
Institutional Affiliation: Partners in Progress and Earthblock International
Title: COMMUNITY INNOVATION THROUGH STABILIZED COMPRESSED EARTH BLOCK CONSTRUCTION IN RURAL HAITI
Abstract Synopsis: Over the last two decades, a number of NGO’s have promoted earthen construction as a building solution in Haiti. These efforts have resulted in limited application of earthen building technologies beyond initial small demonstration projects. Significant barriers to adoption of earthen building technologies exist in Haiti – from the social stigma of using earthen materials, to the lack of education and training. This paper examines how a stabilized compressed earth block (SCEB) school construction project in the community of Deslandes, in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti, was able to overcome these barriers and to foster community-led innovation in housing.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Author: Arnold A. Valdez
Institutional Affiliation: Rezolana Institute
Title: HEMP FIBER EARTH BLOCKS
Abstract Synopsis: The legalization of Industrial Hemp in Colorado via State Legislation, has led to the cultivation of thousands of acres of Hemp for processing as fiber, seeds and medicine. The residual waste from processing the stalks, or hurd, is becoming readily available for use in a variety of construction related products. Hemp fiber and hurd has excellent UV and mold resistance. The ability for the fiber to absorb moisture and not deteriorate will aid in the wick effect of the wet/dry cycle. Hemp fiber has a very high tensile strength that would be a good alternative to straw or other grain fibers used in making traditional adobes. This paper will present a small scale approach for manufacturing sun dried and compressed earth blocks utilizing various mixture combinations of earth, hemp fiber, hurd and stabilizer.
Presentation Type: Podium & Poster
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Authors: Joey Benton, Pat Taylor
Title: MARFA AND ITS ARCHITECTURAL CULTURAL LANDSCAPE
Abstract Synopsis: Marfa is a town that grew out of the intersection of a north south trade route along an ephemeral creek dating back thousands of years, and the recent east west trade route of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Its early history was tied to the frontier, including ranching, forts, later an airfield and a POW camp for German soldiers. It is a small town with a population of 2,000 people. The early buildings were all adobe buildings, and up until the 1930’s, adobe was the predominant form of building. Other than a small building boom in the 1930, Marfa’s architecture has remained relatively intact and tied to its original relationship with the landscape and the available material and knowledge of how to use those materials. This paper would focus at two historic building in Marfa.
Presentation Type: Podium & Poster
Attendance Status: TBD

Author: Jake Barrow
Institutional Affiliation: Cornerstones Community Partnerships
Title: MUD ON THE OLDEST CHURCH IN THE US, MAINTAINING EARTHEN RENDER ON SAN MIGUEL
Abstract Synopsis: In 2010 Cornerstones Community Partnerships embarked on a multi-year preservation effort to restore the integrity of the adobe walls and to re-institute mud plastering as the sacrificial exterior coating to the surface of the San Miguel Mission Church in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Now in its 7th year of service we are able to evaluate the efficacy of this traditional treatment.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Author: Adelle McDaniel
Institutional Affiliation: Trees, Water & People
Title: ADDRESSING THE CHRONIC HOUSING SHORTAGE ON PINE RIDGE INDIAN RESERVATION WITH COMPRESSED EARTH BLOCKS
Abstract Synopsis: Trees, Water & People (TWP), an environmental nonprofit in Fort Collins, Colorado, strives to help rural communities manage the natural resources upon which they depend through innovative solutions that are environmentally sustainable, culturally-appropriate, and economically viable. TWP believes that Compressed Earth Block (CEB) homes are an essential technology that can address the chronic housing shortage on Pine Ridge. Created with locally-sourced clays, soils and minimal equipment, they are ideal for communities with limited access to resources and training. CEB buildings are also highly energy-efficient; compared to concrete or wood framed structures, they require significantly less energy both to create, and to heat and cool after completed. Unlike most past housing efforts on Pine Ridge, CEBs are also sound, bug, and mold proof, and can last for centuries.
Presentation Type: Podium & Poster
Attendance Status: TBD

Authors: Lola Ben-Alon, Vivian Loftness
Institutional Affiliation: School of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University
Title: INTEGRATING EARTHEN BUILDING MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES IN THE MAINSTREAM OF HOUSING PROJECTS THROUGHOUT DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND COMMISSIONING STAGES.
Abstract Synopsis: The suggested research identifies the demands and barriers to the implementation of earthen building materials. The research analyzes successful projects and public policy that have been successfully integrated into mainstream construction projects as the influence of government and existing regulations. The bottom line contribution of the research lies in future recommendations for integrating natural materials and methods in housing policy.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Author: Lisa Holliday
Institutional Affiliation: University of Oklahoma
Title: ENERGY USE OF A COMPRESSED EARTH BLOCK HOUSE COMPARED TO A TRADITIONALLY FRAMED HOUSE
Abstract Synopsis: Since early 2011, students and professors at the University of Oklahoma, College of Architecture have been conducting research on the sustainability of building homes with stabilized compressed earth blocks (SCEB). Once the initial studies were complete, plans were drawn for the home and the building permit was obtained. The SCEB house was built for Cleveland County Habitat for Humanity and a qualified family was found to purchase the home. The SCEB house was built directly adjacent to an identical traditionally framed house which serves as a control in the study. During construction of the two houses details of cost and construct-ability differences were noted. The two homes are now occupied and the project has moved into its final stage of monitoring the energy consumption of the two houses. This article discusses the energy use of the two houses and reviews the findings of the study.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Author: James A. Mason, Ph.D., P.E.
Institutional Affiliation: National Park Service. Vanishing Treasures Program
Title: STRAIGHTENING AND STABILIZATION OF A MASSIVE ADOBE WALL AT THE HOSPITAL BUILDING AT FORT UNION, NM
Abstract Synopsis: Fort Union, New Mexico is one of several Civil War era forts in the western United States, managed by the National Park Service, that were constructed of adobe. The extensive site has been a difficult resource in terms of maintenance of adobe walls and wall coatings. Park staff teaming with the University of Pennsylvania have been developing materials and methods for analysis and preservation of these structures. However, recent concern over basic stability of a massive adobe wall at the Hospital prompted park officials to contact the NPS Vanishing Treasures engineer to assess risk of collapse of the wall. It was immediately apparent that the single wire rope restraint was overloaded.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Not attending. Abstract withdrawn.

Authors: Eduardo Davila, Diego Garcia Vera, Tsegaye Gebremariam, Paola Bandini, Michael J. McGinnis, Brad D. Weldon
Institutional Affiliation: New Mexico State University
Title: EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SMALL-SCALE ADOBE WALLS UNDER LATERAL LOADING
Abstract Synopsis: Adobe provides many unique features that make it an attractive construction material. However, despite the advantages, adobe is particularly vulnerable to the effects of seismic forces. In addition, adobe is often affected by moisture that penetrates from the ground or through the plaster. This paper describes the findings of preliminary laboratory testing to investigate the effect of moisture content on the lateral resistance of adobe walls.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: TBD

Author: Quentin Chase Wilson
Institutional Affiliation: Adobe in Action; The Earthbuilders Guild; Northern New Mexico College
Title: HIGH SPEED ADOBE CONSTRUCTION
Abstract Synopsis: Making adobe bricks is easy but it is hard work. Building an adobe house can be simple and easy but it is harder work. Adobe is heavy, powerful and long lasting. It rewards the builder who does that hard work. This paper presents methods that keep the work from being longer and harder than it needs to be: Speed Leads, Rough Bucks, Wood Bond Beams and Work Flow Planning.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: TBD

Author: John Fordice
Institutional Affiliation: Cob Research Institute
Title: COB TECHNICAL WHITE PAPER
Abstract Synopsis: A digest of all available contemporary and historical Earth Building technical information which can be related to Cob Construction. The goal is to use the information in designing and submitting a proposed Cob Construction Building Code for ICC approval. The current target date is the 2019 IRC code adoption cycle.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: Not attending. Poster will be on display.

Authors: David Rockstraw, Pat Taylor, Eric Liefeld, (student researchers to be named later)
Institutional Affiliation: Mesilla Valley Preservation, Inc.
Title: SALT MIGRATION RATES IN ADOBE WALLS CONSTRUCTED OF MESILLA VALLEY SOILS
Abstract Synopsis: MVP-developed measurement methods (EarthUSA 2017 “Adobe Dynamics 101 –Expanded”) will be applied to establish transient salinity gradients throughout the wall, from which mass transfer coefficients will be experimentally determined, which can subsequently be used in predictive models of transport rates (Fick’s Law of diffusion) to provide the craftsman with the ability to estimate how long a remediation treatment must remain in place to effectively collect the salts from the wall.
Presentation Type: Poster
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker

Author: Mark A. Zaineddin
Institutional Affiliation: Adobe in Action
Title: WE'VE GOT THE SOIL; WE’VE GOT THE CLAY; WHAT ABOUT THE BINDER? CONSIDERING A NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR THE PROMOTION AND PRESERVATION OF EARTH BUILDING ARCHITECTURE IN THE UNITED STATES
Abstract Synopsis: This paper will discuss the possibility of establishing a national “Institute for the Promotion and Preservation of Earth Building Architecture in the United States.”
Presentation Type: Poster & Roundtable Discussion
Attendance Status: TBD

Authors: K. Ben Loescher, AIA, Anne Galer
Institutional Affiliation: The Earth Builders Guild
Title: A MUDDY ENIGMA: DEMYSTIFYING CODE DEVELOPMENT FOR EARTHEN CONSTRUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES
Abstract Synopsis: Keeping up with building code changes is, perhaps, even more important to earthbuilders than the general construction industry. Because we are building in what some term as "traditional" construction methods we sometimes assume that nothing changes. But the fact is that changes in regular building and energy codes often harmfully impact earth building, and the changes that work for frame or masonry construction are often wrong for the integrity of our structures. This paper aims to make the code change and development process understandable and accessible so that earthen practitioners and professionals can participate in creating codes that are appropriate for earthen construction, both locally and nationally. We would like to do this by sharing our recent experience with the process.
Presentation Type: Podium
Attendance Status: Registered Speaker